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Post by Maker » Wed Feb 20, 2019 11:33 pm

Here is a a wonderful document made in part by Myles, it's his notes on gin, I'm sure he would be happy to continue to share this, if not we will remove it.
A really good read even if you are new or old to gin.
Compilation of Gin thoughts and recipes from various online sources.

Note: I have taken liberties and reformatted the source documents for my own use. Content and accreditation remain the same though.
Where I have added content it is in this colour.

2.1 Jonge Jenever 5
2.2 Oude Jenever 5
2.3 Kornwijn 5
4.1 Infusion 7
4.2 Blending 7
5.1 10 Basic Recipes 12
5.1.1 Recipe 1 – BASIC GIN 12
5.1.2 Recipe 2 – BRITISH GIN 12
5.1.3 Recipe 3 – CORDIAL GIN 12
5.1.4 Recipe 4 – CORDIAL GIN 12
5.1.5 Recipe 5 – FINE GIN 12
5.1.6 Recipe 6 – LONDON GIN 13
5.1.7 Recipe 7 – BASIC GENEVA 13
5.1.8 Recipe 8 – PLAIN GENEVA 13
5.1.9 Recipe 9 – FINE GENEVA (highly recommended) 13
5.1.10 Recipe 10 – ENGLISH GENEVA (from “The Household Encyclopaedia”) 13
5.1.11 Some notes concerning botanicals: 14
7.1 Small Scale Maceration Method 16
8.0 BRANDS 18
8.1 Beefeater 18
8.2 Bombay Sapphire 18
8.3 Gordon’s 18
8.4 Greenall’s 18
8.5 Junipero 18
8.6 Millers 18
8.7 Plymouth 18
8.8 Tanqueray 18
8.9 South 19
8.10 Hendricks 19
8.11 Xorigeur 19
8.12 Larios 19

Kiwi invited me to this thread because I said I have some gin recipes and was willing to share them. I agreed and would like to add the following caveats:

Gin, for me at least, is a personal thing. I make what I like best.
Experimentation is good.
There is no right way to create gin.
Gin has only one requirement: juniper berries (although some would include coriander seed). All else is indulgence.

Because I’m a bit OCD about making gin, I sometimes get caught up in the details, so bear with me if I seem to over-explain. Someone else might find the information useful.

I start with the cleanest azeotrope I can make. I use 8 kilos of white sugar to make 25 litres of wash with filtered water and use Lallemand’s SuperStart distiller’s yeast and Liquor Quik distiller’s yeast nutrient with AG -- 3 tbsp yeast and 6 tbsp nutrient. Both are available through Mile Hi Distilling in the US (among many others). It ferments dry in 5 to 7 days and I use a settling agent (Chitosan D2) to clarify the wash. The wash finishes at about 19% abv.

I use a Stone & Nixon design 2-inch offset head LM reflux still on a 40-inch, all copper column over a 15.5 US gallon SS electric keg with 24-inch SS packing (HETP 7). I use a 1500 W, 120 V low density heating element and run a medium drip (3 to 4 drops per second) after removing 150 to 200 ml of heads. I get around 4.5 litres of 95+% ethanol. Generally speaking, this is clean enough to avoid activated charcoal cleaning, but that’s your choice. I try to make up about 5 gallons ahead and store it in a sealed glass carboy.

[Much of the following is from a document I’m putting together about hobby distilling…]
(Note from Myles, already on the waiting list )

Making gin can be as simple as adding gin concentrate to a bottle of clean 80 proof vodka or neutral spirit, or as complex as steam distillation of a grain-based ferment with the addition of juniper berries and a range of botanicals added to the wash before distillation.

Most gin is still made in the UK but Genever is still made in Holland and Spain makes a lot of gin with brands such as Larios and Xorigeur. Gin is also made outside of Europe. In California, Junipero is made by the Anchor Steam distillery and the vodka label 42 Below also make South Gin using botanicals native to New Zealand such as the Boa Boa Tree (SAM).
There is a modern trend moving towards new ‘boutique’ gins to appeal to a broader section of the drinking market. Brands such as Millers, Blackwoods and Hendricks are using newer and softer, more feminine botanicals such as cucumber, rose petals and lavender to create a more cocktail friendly gin that can be easier to put into a vodka drinkers hand.
The base is typically neutral alcohol from an external source. If it is a grain spirit, it is usually from wheat or barley, however, the neutral spirit can come from any source. If a sweeter style (such as Old Tom Gin) is required, the distiller may opt to use molasses spirit for a sugared edge.

There are three basic ways to make gin:

1. Distillation – where the botanicals are added directly to or just above the wash prior to distillation or placed in the distillate vapor stream during distillation.

2. Infusion – where the botanicals are steeped in the spirit for a period of time (cold compounding).

3. Blending – where a distilled concentrate of mixed botanicals is added to the spirit.

4. One-Shot Method – With the one-shot method, juniper and the other botanicals are macerated in the neutral spirit and water according to the distillers’ recipe. This maceration my go on for up to 48 hours. The botanicals are strained off and the spirit is poured into the still. The distillation occurs in a copper pot still. Some producers will distil with the botanicals in the still to further fix the flavours in the gin. Water is then added to the gin before bottling.

5. Two-Shot Method – This is quicker method and saves on still usage (therefore more economically viable). In this method, a much stronger mix of botanicals is used in the maceration and distillation process. This is used as a concentrate and mixed with neutral spirit alcohol to increase the final volume. Water is then added to the gin before bottling. The main brand using this method today is Gordon’s Gin.

6. Vapour Infusion Method – With this technique, the botanicals are not macerated with the neutral spirit. They are placed in a basket or cage in the neck of the still. The alcohol vapours pass over them during distillation and pick up the flavours for the gin. The main brand using this method today is Bombay Sapphire (the Carterhead Still)

Jenever (also known as Geneva, Genever, and Hollands), like gin, is a juniper flavoured spirit. It is made in a more complicated method that allows for more of the flavours from the original base spirit to come through in the final product. It is less neutral than London Dry Gins and is regularly sold with fruit flavourings – citrus is a popular choice.

Jenever is made in Holland (centred at Schiedam near Rotterdam) and Belgium (centred around Hasselt and Ghent) and would have been the spirit nicknamed ‘Dutch Courage’ by the English soldiers fighting in Europe in the 1600’s. It is also the spirit that would have come home back to England with the troops helping gin to gain its initial notoriety. Jenever is made in a more complicated way to gin.

It is made by blending two spirits together –‘Moutwijn’ (malt wine) and botanically flavoured neutral spirit (gin).

The malt wine is double or triple distilled in a pot still to a relatively low strength (approx 45-50%). It is made from a mixture of rye, malted barley and wheat and has the characteristics of an un-aged whisky. It is this malt wine that gives Jenever its distinctive flavour when compared to the English styles of gin. The botanically flavoured neutral spirit is essentially gin only using less conventional botanicals such as caraway and aniseed. The blend of the two spirits is determined by the producer according to the style of Jenever they are making – ‘Jonge’, ‘oude’ or ‘kornwijn’.
2.1 Jonge Jenever
This style was developed during the 1950’s in response to consumer demands for a lighter, more approachable style of Jenever. It typically has around 5% malt wine content and fewer botanicals in the ‘gin’ component. It is called ‘jonge’ Jenever as it is a ‘young’ style rather than being lightly aged.
2.2 Oude Jenever
‘Oude’ refers to the ‘Old’ style of traditional Jenever rather than the spirit being aged. It must contain a minimum of 15% malt wine and will often have more botanicals than the ‘jonge’ style.
Heavier botanicals such as myrrh and aloe are often used to match the maltier note emerging from heavier use of malt wines.
2.3 Kornwijn
Kornwijn styles of Jenever are cask aged by law. They must also contain a minimum of 51% malt wine. This makes them much heavier and richer as the malty character from the malt wine ages in the cask making woody, wined flavours emerge.
Gin’s missing link is the easiest way to describe it. Old Tom is the long-lost cousin that helps make sense of the idea that malty Dutch genever and sharp-edged London dry gin are members of the same family. Old Tom is lighter and less intense than the former, more viscous and fuller-bodied than the latter, with a sweetness derived from naturally sweet botanicals, malts or added sugar. And once upon a time, it was a common sight behind the bar.

In the mid- to late-19th century, sports and sots who entered a saloon and called out “Gin!” would be handed either genever or Old Tom. Page through any cocktail book from the late 1800s and you’ll find dozens of recipes calling for it. Harry Johnson’s famous Bartender’s Manual of 1882 listed the spirit as an essential liquor “required in the bar room.”
By the next century, though, it had been surpassed and supplanted by the London dry style of gin typified by Beefeater, Tanqueray and the like. The dawn of the current millennium, meanwhile, left Old Tom as unremembered as last night’s bender.

For a gin to be considered “distilled,” the botanicals must be added to the wash, suspended above the wash in the boiler, or placed in the vapour flow during the process of distillation. When gin became popular as a beverage, the botanicals were added directly to the wash and the resultant output was diluted with water. There’s no doubt experimentation was done to reduce the overwhelming flavour of juniper to palatable levels. This was likely done in a relatively small quantity over an open fire or small furnace, in a sand-heat furnace, or in a bain marie or double boiler.

Where the possibility of scorching the botanicals existed, they were placed loosely in a tied muslin bag and suspended in the wash above the bottom of the boiler or above the wash in the raw vapour above the surface of the boiling wash. Later, it was found that placing the botanicals in the vapour stream just before the condenser effectively eliminated the need for later removal of botanical oils that break down at the temperature of boiling water but not at the lower temperature of vaporized alcohol. All three methods are recognized by law as a “gin distillation” and can use the description “distilled gin” in labelling and advertising.

When the botanicals are placed in or just above the boiling wash, care needs to be taken to “taste test” the distillate and discard the small amount of harsh flavoured distillate at the beginning of the distillation. This is not dissimilar to the removal of heads in the initial distillation, but the amount is considerably smaller. When the botanicals are placed in the post-reflux vapour flow, such flavours can be minor or non-existent but, in fact, every still is different, so check the distillate flavour to determine if some of the initial output needs to be discarded. Remember to dilute the sample to 40% abv before tasting.

4.1 Infusion
The dictionary defines infusion as – the act of steeping or soaking a substance in liquid so as to extract medicinal or herbal qualities. It is also known in some circles as cold compounding. Regardless of what it’s called, it’s a method of letting the alcohol solution absorb the aromas and flavours of the various botanicals that constitute the beverage known by many as gin. It’s not that different from making tea except that it’s an alcohol solution rather than hot water.

If the total amount of botanicals used is approximately 20-35 grams/litre of 80-proof alcohol, this can be placed in a large teabag, and allowed to steep in a tightly covered wide-mouth jar. The jar is to be shaken or stirred every hour or so until appropriate level of flavour is reached, the teabag removed and the gin bottled and capped.

The botanicals can also be added loosely (without benefit of a teabag) and filtered through a paper coffee filter at the appropriate time, bottled and capped. This method is generally used for larger quantities.

4.2 Blending
Blending is the addition of a predetermined amount of botanical concentrate to a fixed amount of 80-proof alcohol. This concentrate can be purchased or it can be made using an herbal extract stove-top still.

The extract still can be as simple as a glass coffee carafe with a cork stopper and small diameter copper tubing leading to a Liebig condenser and collection jar. Extract stills can also be purchased through some of the larger herbal chain stores and through mail-order scientific supply companies.

While the blending of a concentrate with an 80-proof alcohol is simplistic, the extraction of the concentrate itself can be considerably complex, dealing with a wide range of variables. It is left to the reader to obtain further information concerning materials and equipment necessary to create botanical concentrates.

There are over 300 different botanicals a gin producer can use. They will normally use between six and twelve different ones to give character to the gin as well as market differentiation. If more than ten are used, often the flavours of the gin are over-complicated and lost when mixed. Fewer botanicals give a greater definition to the character of the gin without losing its complexity. The three main botanicals used are juniper berries, coriander and angelica.

These are the principal botanicals used in production of gin (alphabetical):

Angelica root Archangelica officinalis
Aniseed Pimpinella anisum
Bitter almond Prunus dulcis, amara
Bitter orange peel Citrus aurantium
Calamus root Acorus calamus
Caraway seed Corum carvi
Cardamom seeds Elettaria cardamomum
Cassia bark Cinnamomum cassia
Cinnamon bark Cinnamonum zeylanicum
Coriander seed* Coriandrum sativum
Cubeb berries Piper cubeb
Fennel seed Foeniculum vulgare
Grains of paradise Afromomum melegueta
Juniper berries* Juniperis communis
Lemon peel Citrus limon
Licorice root Glycyrrhiza spp.
Nutmeg Myristica fragrans
Orris root Iris pallida
Sweet orange peel Citrus sinensis
*primary flavourings

Gin can be as simple as juniper berries steeped in a litre of 80% neutral for as little as an hour or for as long as a week. However, a fine gin typically contains 6 to 10 botanicals, although the Dutch Damask Gin has 17 and the French Citadelle Gin has 19.
Botanicals are, of course, the herbs, fruits, nuts/seeds, roots, bark and berries used for a specific flavour. Generally, they are dried and rehydrated by the spirit.

The total amount of botanicals used is approximately 20-35 grams/litre of 80-proof gin. If we take the dominant botanical juniper as 'x', the proportion of the botanicals used is:

X juniper
X/2 coriander
X/10 angelica, cassia, cinnamon, licorice, bitter almonds, grains of paradise, cubeb berries
X/100 bitter & sweet orange peel, lemon peel, ginger, orris root, cardamom, nutmeg, savory, calamus, chamomile

If we use X = 20g, then X/2 = 10g, X/10 = 2g, X/100 = 0.2g (200mg).

Multiply by the number of finished litres. Using only one of each division provides 32.2 grams/litre, leaving considerable room for adjustment and addition.

This is only a guideline, so keep in mind that variations to this pattern bring out different flavours and back-flavours, a different nose, a different aftertaste and mouth-feel. Also remember that the spirit, regardless of the distillation method used, must be as clean as possible (absolute minimum heads and tails) because re-distillation is for the purpose of adding the botanicals, not fixing the wash.

Thanks to TDick for this. ... botanicals

5.1 10 Basic Recipes
Bob Emmons, in “The Book of Gin & Vodkas,” provides nine basic recipes in g/l measures:
5.1.1 Recipe 1 – BASIC GIN
Juniper 22.5g
Coriander 11.5g
Cassia 2.5g
Angelica root 2.5g
Lemon peel 0.25g
Cardamom 0.25g
5.1.2 Recipe 2 – BRITISH GIN
Juniper 15g
Coriander 15g
Bitter almonds 12g
Angelica root 0.25g
Licorice root 1g
5.1.3 Recipe 3 – CORDIAL GIN
Juniper 10g
Coriander 7.5g
Bitter almonds 1.5g
Orris root 0.25g
Angelica root 0.25g
Cardamom 0.06g
Licorice root 1g
5.1.4 Recipe 4 – CORDIAL GIN
Juniper 10g
Coriander 7.5g
Orris root 0.25g
Angelica root 0.125g
Calamus root 0.25g
Cardamom 0.05g
5.1.5 Recipe 5 – FINE GIN
Juniper 10g
Coriander 0.5g
Grains of paradise 0.5g
Angelica root 0.5g
Orris root 0.25g
Calamus root 0.25g
Orange peel 0.25g
Licorice root 10g (optional)

5.1.6 Recipe 6 – LONDON GIN
Juniper 10g
Coriander 10g
Bitter almonds 1g
Angelica root 0.25g
Licorice root 1g
5.1.7 Recipe 7 – BASIC GENEVA
Juniper 10g
Coriander 12g
Cassia 0.6g
Angelica root 0.5g
Calamus root 0.6g
Bitter almonds 1.2g
Cardamom 0.05g
5.1.8 Recipe 8 – PLAIN GENEVA
Juniper 10g
Coriander 10g
Calamus root 0.25g
Bitter almonds 0.5g
Orris root 0.25g
5.1.9 Recipe 9 – FINE GENEVA (highly recommended)
Juniper 20g
Coriander 8g
Angelica root 1g
Calamus root 0.25g
Bitter almonds 3g
Cardamon 0.125g
Grains of paradise 1g
5.1.10 Recipe 10 – ENGLISH GENEVA (from “The Household Encyclopaedia”)
Juniper 35g

Note that not all these recipes follow the pattern mentioned earlier, but have variations from which specific notes are brought forward according to the blenders’ tastes.

5.1.11 Some notes concerning botanicals:

Purchase organic materials whenever possible. Spray-on insecticides and fertilizers can add unpleasant tastes and unwanted (and potentially toxic) chemicals to your finished product.

Wash or thoroughly rinse all fresh botanicals to remove dirt, dust and insects. Citrus, unless picked locally, is usually sprayed with water-soluble, edible wax to prevent the fruit from drying too quickly and may cloud the finished product.

Citrus peel and bitter almonds contain oils which can cloud the beverage when water is added, whether from mixes or ice. If this is a problem, filter the gin through a paper coffee filter to absorb the oils before bottling. This usually helps, but not always. Ethanol dissolves most oils but, when diluted, the oils may come out of solution.

Citrus “peels” are the top layer of skin from the fruit, sometimes referred to as “zest.” The best way to remove this is to use a vegetable peeler (stainless steel or ceramic is best) and remove only the outermost layer. The white, spongy inner layer, or pith, can be quite bitter and leave an unpleasant aftertaste.

Fresh materials are always superior; however, recipe weights are for dried materials. Use a food drier to dry your botanicals, then use as quickly as possible to obtain the full flavour.


My 2nd Gin Recipe, Grand Tour Gin

10/12/14 All put through the Carter Head. Grams/litre of finished Gin @ 40%

Grams for 1ltr Grams for 5ltr
Juniper 10 50
Coriander seeds 5 grams 25 grams
Angelica 1 5
Orris root 1 5
Cassia bark 1 5
G/ Paradise four grains 20 grains (NOT GRAMS)
Rose petals 3 15
Black pepper 1 corn 5 corns
Liquorice NIL NIL
Lavender NIL NIL
Star Anise 0.2 1
Orange (Dried sweet) 0.2 1
Lemon (Fresh) 0.2 1
Lemongrass (Fresh only) 0.4 2
Lime 0.4 2
Ginger (powdered) 0.1 0.5
Cardamom 0.1 0.5
Cloves 0.5 cloves 2 whole cloves
Dill leaves 0.1 0.5
Fennel seeds 0.1 0.5

by stubbydrainer » Thu Feb 06, 2014 4:21 pm

After a gazillion requests for my gin recipe I thought I better post it here in experimental because it is still a work in progress using a 1" pot still on an 8 ltr boiler so this is the way I have been making it. it makes a gin very comparable to Bombay Sapphire, if not better

7.1 Small Scale Maceration Method
For a 2l boiler charge you need these ingredients

30g of juniper berries
15g of corriander seed
2g of angelica root
2g of Cassia bark (not cinnaman sticks)
2g of liquorice root
4-6 drops of almond essence
2g of grains of paradise
2g of cubeb berries
0.2g of lemon/lime zest
0.2g of orris root powder

• grind the above in a spice grinder (medium to course)
• place grounds in 1 ltr of GOOD CLEAN neutral that is 45%abv. (I do it in a 5 lltr demi-john) for 24 hrs, shaking it up occasionally
• after 24 hrs add another 1 ltr of the neutral (@ 45% abv.)
• give it a bit of a shake up
• pour into the boiler and distill

chuck out the first 50-75 ml and collect the rest, cutting off when the oily streaks are visible in the distillate and before the oils start to make a cloudy appearance in the jar (small jars are good for this)

dilute it down to 43%abv. bottle it, and sit on a shelf until it clears ( it can get a cloudyness to it when first broken down ) this can take up to 3 weeks (well it has for me anyway, and it's like most things, leave it longer and the better it is, but I have a minimum of 8 -10 days , it is a lot smoother than consumed straight away)

once clear, enjoy it any way you like, I like it in tonic with a slice of lime and plenty of ice

here is the still I use

Like I said, its experimental, but some think it is a good gin as is and needs no more mucking with

(Last edited by stubbydrainer on Thu Feb 06, 2014 6:14 pm)

8.1 Beefeater
This is the only London Dry Gin to still be made in London. James Burrough founded the company in 1863 whilst working as a pharmacist. The same recipe he perfected in 1863 is still used today. It uses only six botanicals and is seen as a classic style of gin.
8.2 Bombay Sapphire
Bombay Sapphire was developed in the 1980’s from the Original Bombay Gin (which was developed from the original Greenalls Gin recipe). It has ten botanicals that they advertise on the side of the bottle. It is made in a Carterhead still using the vapour infusion method of distillation.
8.3 Gordon’s
The recipe for this gin was created in 1769 and has not changed since (although the two-shot method is now used in its production). It is a low strength gin at only 37.5% abv, but is one of the largest selling gin brands in the world.
8.4 Greenall’s
The recipe for Greenall’s gin was created in 1761 by Thomas Dakin. It is triple distilled using the vapour infusion method (although in different stills to Bombay Sapphire) with eight botanicals.
8.5 Junipero
The Anchor Distilling Company makes Junipero in San Francisco. It uses over 12 botanicals and is made in small batches. It is one of the stronger gins at 49.3% abv. The Anchor Distillery is one of the few distilleries in the world that makes more than one spirit (they also make Old Potrero Rye Whisky).
8.6 Millers
Millers Gin was only founded a few years ago by the Reformed Spirits Company, London. It makes a new style gin in old-fashioned ways. They macerate the botanicals before and during distillation and then ship the distillate to Iceland where pure glacial water is added to bring it to bottling strength.
8.7 Plymouth
The Blackfriars distillery in Plymouth is the oldest distillery in England dating from 1793. It has its own appellation protecting Plymouth Gin (as opposed to London Dry Gin). The water must come from a specific source, no bitter botanicals can be used and it must be made in Plymouth.
There are a total of seven botanicals in Plymouth Gin (Juniper, coriander seeds, lemon and orange peel, angelica root, orris root and cardamom seeds). The still that makes Plymouth Gin has been in operation for over 155 years. The Pilgrim Fathers stayed at the Dominican Priory (where the distillery is situated) before leaving for the ‘New World’ in 1620 although the priory dates back to 1431.
8.8 Tanqueray
Charles Tanqueray founded this gin in 1830. It is widely exported over the world but has a huge market in the US. The bottle was designed to mimic the shape of a 1920’s cocktail shaker. It uses eight botanicals and is quadruple distilled in Cameronbridge, Scotland, in the No. 4 “Old Tom” still. A deluxe version of the gin is also made called Tanqueray No. 10, which uses fresh botanicals and is distilled in a smaller still – the No. 10 still.
8.9 South
South Gin is made by the same company that makes 42 Below vodka. South uses botanicals native to New Zealand. It uses 42 Below wheat vodka as its spirit base.
8.10 Hendricks
Hendricks is made in Scotland and is a new ‘boutique’ style of gin. It lists rose petals and cucumber amongst its botanicals.
8.11 Xorigeur
Xorigeur is made in Menorca, Spain. It is bottled at the strength it comes off the still after the second distillation – 38%. It is the unusually low distillation strength that gives the gin its full character.
8.12 Larios
Larios is the best selling gin in Spain. It is packaged in the distinctive yellow label with red writing


Prepare a clean base spirit by whichever method you like. How clean and tasteless is up to you and what style you want to make.
Obviously if you are making Genever, then at least 1 of the base spirits is flavoured.

I don`t make a huge amount of gin so my gear is a bit on the small side. Over the years I have come up with this basic concept. It is not original and I am sure other folks have done the same.

Charge the boiler with 18% to 20% clean base spirit.
Use a thumper.
Put hard botanicals in the thumper body and light botanicals in an inline basket. Just allow any “basket juice” to drip back into the thumper. Other folks divert it and collect it separately – I don`t bother. It is your choice.

I have a stainless 33 litre clip top fermentation vessel with a 3 kW element that I use as a boiler because it is convenient.
At the moment my thumper has a deep water seal system, it works but is a bit inconvenient. I shall probably modify it to use 4” triclamp fittings instead.
Or perhaps not!!
I'm not as think as you drunk I am...

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